CHIM is the ability to change the world around you, to change reality, break natural laws, and bypass all known limitations. The only known people to achieve CHIM are Tiber Septim and Vivec.
Tiber Septim used CHIM to change Cyrodiil from a jungle/rainforest into the grasslands you see today,   whilst Vivec used it to teach his people how to breath water, and then subsequently flood Morrowind to repel the Akaviri invaders in 2E 572 
To achieve CHIM, one must learn that all of existence is in the shape of a wheel, and when you look at that wheel from the side, it is a tower, a "I". This means that everything is everything, all is one, one is all, but then you must subsequently seperate yourself from that "one is all" mentality, and seperate your individuality from that of existence. 
A Dragon Break is when time becomes non-linear, in that it is not one continuous timeline from point A to point B. Lets say for breakfast, you wanted waffles, but you also wanted bacon, but you also couldn't afford to eat breakfast because you'd miss work. Well at the end of a Dragon Break, all of these events occured. You had your waffles, you had your bacon, you made it to work, but you also missed work. 5 known Dragon Breaks have occured: The Time Wound, The Middle Dawn, During the Tiber Wars, and during the Warp in the West.
The Dwemer fused with Numidium after Kagrenac hit the Heart of Lorkhan with Sunder and Keening 
First, read above about Dragon Breaks. Mannimarco became a god during the Warp in the West, allowing him to become the Necromancer's Moon, but he also did not become a god, and so there is a mortal Mannimarco still in existence on Nirn.
No, this is a misconception by many SKYRIM players. There were in fact a few dragons still alive in a few games. Skakmat was in DAGGERFALL, Nafaalilargus was in REDGUARD, Ahbiilok is said to known to still be alive somewhere, and not to mention Paarthurnax was in Skyrim.
Talos is actually an entirely new being made up of a combination of 3 souls: Tiber Septim, Zurin Arctus, and Ysmir Wulfharth after their souls combined within a gem known as The Mantella, which was originally planned to replace the Heart of Lorkhan as Numidium's power source. This combination, known as Talos, is also sometimes refered to as the "Talos Oversoul".  
The towers are a series of towers around Nirn that keep Mundus stable. Each Tower has a Stone that keeps it active.
The First Tower was Ada-Mantia, with it's stone being the "Zero Stone", created during Convention, when Auri-El and his followers left Mundus and fled to Aetherius, and is located on the Isle of Balfiera in High Rock. This Tower is active.
The Second Tower is Red Mountain, with it's stone being Heart of Lorkhan. This tower was created when Trinimac ripped out the Heart of Lorkhan, gave it Auri-El, who then knocked it on his bow, and shot it across the skies. Where the Heart landed, Red Mountain formed, now in modern day Morrowind.  It is unknown if this tower is still active
The Third Tower is The White-Gold Tower, with it's stone being the Amulet of Kings. It was created by the Ayleids to worship their ancestors in Cyrodiil. This tower is currently inactive
The Fourth Tower is Crystal Tower, with it's stone being "a person". This tower was built by the Altmer in The Summerset Isles, and is currently inactive after being raided during the Oblivion Crisis by hordes of Daedra
The Fifth Tower is The Throat of the World, located in Skyrim, with it's stone being "a cave". This tower was created when Magnus left Mundus and fled to Aetherius with his followers. This tower is currently active.
The Sixth Tower is Green-Sap, with it's stone being a "Perchance Acorn". This tower is a large Graht-Oak Tree located in modern day Valenwood, and is currently active.
The Seventh Tower is Orichalc, with it's stone being "a sword". This Tower is located in Yokuda, but it is unknown if it is still active, due to the sinking of Yokuda
The Eighth Tower is Numidium, with it's stone being the Mantella. It was created by the Dwemer in Morrowind, and is currently inactive, though it is possible for it to be reawoken once again.
There are other possible towers, those being The Coral Tower of Thras, the Clockwork Tower within Sotha-Sil's Clockwork City, Ceporah Tower on the Island of Artaeum in the Summerset Isles, The Iron Tower of Orsinium, The Lunar Lattice/Ja-Kha'jay, The Shadow Tower in Umbriel, with it's stone being the Ingenium, The Sacellum Arden-Sul in the Shivering Isles, The Pillar Palace of Mephala, located within the Spiral Skein, and Murkwood
The original Time God was known as Aka. He was eventually split into various pieces, similar to breaking a window. These pieces would gain individual identities, those of which include Akatosh, Auri-El, Alduin, Alkosh, and Ruptga 
Redguards are from a previous Kalpa.  A Kalpa is an alternate version of Nirn in the past, or future. Redguards and Yokuda came from a previous Kalpa, whilst it is theorized that Akavir comes from a future Kalpa. The Redguards were able to do this by "Moving at Strange Angles".